Dendrites are frequently precipitated from splat-cooled, carbon-doped molten metal.



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These graphene microstructures precipitated from cobalt.



These dendrites are associated with thin graphite deposits.  Thicker deposits form origami-like structures.




bifurcating "cactus spines" on iron
Compare these "cactus spines" precipitated from iron with the cobalt-precipitated dendrites shown above.  One explanation for these growths is the strong electrostatic fields (on the order of 1010 V/m) that probably concentrate at the dendrite tips as they form.  Such high fields produce high stresses that may easily deform sufficiently thin graphite on a molten metal surface[6].




branching dendrites on nickel
These typical branching dendrites cannot be attributed to electrostatic field stress.










dendrites on cobalt