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Field-stretched shells




Use of electrostatic fields to control graphite shell shape




electrostatic field-stretched origami shell










Because these objects begin as molten metal under high vacuum, it is easy to distort the melt shape and the resulting origami-like graphite shell through the application of a strong electric field. With a weaker applied field, this sample would have been nearly spherical.  Electrostatic forces may also be responsible for sub-micron-scale dendritic features.